Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Training on Local Employees in Asian Hospitality Industry Research Paper

Preparing on Local Employees in Asian Hospitality Industry - Research Paper Example One essential understanding that should be investigated in this proposed research study is the contrast between European initiative and Asian workers at the social level. European HR administrators for the most part hail from societies that are globalized and have a long-standing industrialized and business history. A lot of this impact has originated from Western nations, for example, the United States, that went about as the structure for a significant part of the advanced HR standards being utilized in an assortment of ventures today. European pioneers are from individualistic social orders, under Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Framework, whereby chiefs and representatives esteem self-articulation and autonomy in the working environment and will in general worth individual objective accomplishment over that of gathering objective setting and gathering focused prizes (Blodgett, Bakir and Rose, 2008). In this sort of association or culture, individualists look for more dynami c position and employment job self-sufficiency so as to stay faithful and fulfilled so they can become execution situated and try to meet key objectives. This individualistic demeanor drives most of their HR arrangements as it identifies with representative preparing and learning. In Asian societies, be that as it may, there is a solid, authentic pattern toward community. This sort of social qualities bunch standards and gathering connection over individualized articulation where â€Å"they see themselves as an individual from a more distant family, place bunch interests in front of individual needs, and worth response of favors and regard for tradition† (Blodgett et al, p.339). Representatives that have solid collectivist qualities frequently look for sentiment and systems administration from peers and work well in organized, unified administration progressions. Collectivists regularly esteem rules and guidelines and look for progressing authority nearness in their activity jobs and don't work most viably when left to self-sufficient occupation capacities.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Islam and Muslim Contact Unit Free Essays

The term â€Å"Islamophobia† was first utilized in print in 1991 and was characterized in the Runnymede Trust Report as â€Å"unfounded threatening vibe towards Islam, and along these lines dread or abhorrence of all or most Muslims. † The word has been authored in light of the fact that there is another reality which needs naming †hostile to Muslim bias has developed so extensively thus quickly as of late that another thing in the jargon is required with the goal that it very well may be recognized and acted against. (Sajid 2005) The term â€Å"Islamophobia† was authored by method of similarity to â€Å"xenophobia†, which is an abhorrence or dread of individuals from different nations or of that which is seen to be outside or abnormal. We will compose a custom article test on Islam and Muslim Contact Unit or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now A few definitions recommend xenophobia as emerging from nonsensicalness or delirium; this can likewise be said for islamophobia. Islamophobia can be portrayed by the conviction that all or most Muslims are strict enthusiasts, have fierce propensities towards non-Muslims, and reject ideas, for example, fairness, resistance, and vote based system. It is another type of bigotry where Muslims, an ethno-strict gathering, are built as a race. A lot of negative suspicions are made of the whole gathering to the weakness of individuals from that gathering. During the 1990s numerous sociologists and social article essayist toronto examiners watched a move in bigot thoughts from ones dependent on skin shading to ones dependent on ideas of social prevalence and otherness. (Sajid 2005) In Britain and other European or Western nations, Manifestations of against muslim antagonistic vibe has been exemplified in numerous verbal just as physical assaults on Muslims in broad daylight places and assaults on mosques and spoiling of Muslim graveyards. Prior to 9/11, in Western nations negative generalizations and comments in talks by political pioneers, inferring that Muslims are less dedicated than others to vote based system and the standard of law. There was an ascent in the quantity of detest wrongdoings against Muslims in London in 2010, these abhor violations were being energized by standard government officials and segments of the media, an investigation composed by a previous Scotland Yard counter-fear based oppression official, distributed January 26, 2010, says that assaults going from death dangers and murder to relentless low-level ambushes, for example, spitting and verbally abusing, are to a limited extent prepared by fanatics and segments of standard society. Lambert headed Scotland Yard’s Muslim contact unit, which improved relations between the police and Britain’s Islamic people group. The examination makes reference to no papers or journalists by name, however affirms that the book Londonistan, by the Mail essayist Melanie Phillips, had an influence in activating scorn wrongdoings. Londonistan is a book about the spread of Islamism in the United Kingdomâ over the previous twenty years. At the point when London was hit by self destruction planes in July 2005, the skeleton in the closet was at last out. Incredible Britain had been the European center of Islamist fanaticism for over 10 years. Under the noses of British insight, a system of psychological militants and their supporters had utilized Britain to plot, money, enlist and train for barbarities in the United States and around the globe. The size of this action was huge to such an extent that exasperated European security offices named Britain’s capital city Londonistan. (Phillips 2006). In Europe and in America also, it tends to be seen in across the board and routine antagonistic generalizing in the media and regular talk in manners that would not be worthy if the reference were, for instance, to Jewish or dark individuals. (Dodd 2010) Islamophobia is increased by various relevant elements. One of these is the way that a high extent of exiles are Muslims. Trashing of evacuees is consequently much of the time a coded assault on Muslims, for the words â€Å"Muslim,† â€Å"asylum-seeker,† â€Å"refugee,† and â€Å"immigrant† become equal in the well known creative mind. For this situation, the normal encounters of foreigner networks with joblessness, dismissal, distance and savagery have joined with Islamophobia to make mix extremely troublesome. This has driven Muslim people group to endure more elevated levels of joblessness, poor lodging, unexpected weakness and more elevated levels of racially roused savagery than different networks. (sajid 2010). For instance, in 2003, when the Home Office created a banner about supposed double dealing and contemptibility among individuals looking for haven, it decided to delineate its interests by concentrating on somebody with a Muslim name. France has been wracked by strains over its quickly developing Muslim minority. Another case of this would France prohibiting the wearing of Islamic shroud and other face covers prior this year, guaranteeing they were both debasing and a security hazard. Belgium has passed comparable enactment, and Switzerland prohibited the structure of minarets, the tall towers which frequently remain close to mosques. Ghazi 2006) A huge issue that powers the flames in the fight against Islamophobia is the drawing of kid's shows irritating the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. All the more explicitly, this issue started after 12â editorial kid's shows, the greater part of whichâ depictedâ the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were distributed in the Danish newspaper Jylla nds-Postenâ on September 30, 2005. These Danish visual artists focused on Muhammad as an approach to assault the Muslims’ opportunity of free discourse and religion. In Muslim social orders offending Muhammad is the gravest all things considered; likewise thought about profanation and deserving of death. Tragically, a few occasions that followed these put-down toward Muhammad finished in numerous passings. The Organization of the Islamic Conference has upbraided requires the passing of the Danish visual artists. The undeniable refusal of this solicitation caused assaults on honest people and mobs all over Europe. A few demonstrations included shelling of Christians at chapel, consuming of houses of worship, butchering guiltless youngsters and different regular citizens, and one explicit episode included slaughtering honest train travelers. Indeed, even before the Jyllands-Posten riots, there were a lot of hostile to Muslim acts in Europe. One of which was the Dutch lawmaker Pim Fortuyn’s death in 2002 for his enemy of Islamic perspectives. He considered Islam a â€Å"backward culture† and needed to stop Muslim movement. After his passing his gathering made its introduction in Parliament with a 17% seat share demonstrating how well known he was around then. Another case of Europe’s hostile to Muslim perspectives just as the Islam’s’ bigotry for the deprecating of their way of life is the death of Theo van Gogh In 2004. Van Gogh coordinated a short film called Submission which attempted to feature the job of ladies in Islam. While the film came in for a ton of analysis, van Gogh was killed around the same time over the film. In particular, the dread of Muslims turned out to be progressively common in the United States after the occasions that happened on September 11, 2001. So as to examine Muslim Americans’ encircling in the news media after 9/11, it is essential to concentrate on two explicit periods; the initial half year time frame after the assaults and the period after the primary commemoration of September 11. The two time frames are significant in light of the fact that the news system totally changed during these two scenes. In the main quick a half year after 9/11, the media portrayal was exceptionally positive, extensive, visit and relevant. Nonetheless, after the primary commemoration of 9/11, the media inclusion changed. It turned out to be extremely negative, cliché and selective. By the primary commemoration of September 11, the depiction of Muslim Americans in both print and link news had totally moved from the more continuous, positive, contextual,â thematic, engaging and complete inclusion to an increasingly visit, negative, stereotypical,â episodicâ and restrictive inclusion. The portion of giving an account of Muslim Americans declined, abhor violations soar and the positive open view of Muslims that was made in the quick time frame after 9/11 decreased. In the end, this negative impression of Muslims showed itself through enemy of Islamic uproars and disdain of Muslim Americans in up and coming years. (Amiri 2012) September 11, 2001, and the days that followed created solid emotions among non-Muslims just as among Muslims in Europe. At the point when individuals feel frail and disappointed they are inclined to hit out with vicious language: â€Å"You don’t have a place here,† or â€Å"Get out of my nation now; England is for white humanized English individuals! † are instances of the sort of rough language that was utilized in email messages to the Muslim Council of Britain quickly following the assaults. These messages are noteworthy, for they communicated perspectives and recognitions that are broad among non-Muslims and that are repeating segments of Islamophobia. Allen 2002) While over in the western side of the equator, the American government was attempting to guarantee the Americans residents of their security. In the initial not many days following 9/11 there were different news thrown addressing residents, legislators, and government authorities of what precisely went on that day. Be that as it may, what most Americans truly needed to know was whether they can be protected realizing that individuals of a similar race and religion as the psychological militants were strolling the avenues. In spite of the fact that there was dread struck into the hearts of American residents, Americans were too better than average to even think about evening consider lashing out on Muslim Americans. That as well as American didn’t think even about their way of life, religion, or race to abhor them to degree that Europeans do. (Schwartz 2010). At the point when it came time to get the purpose of perspectives from the horse’s mouth, Muslim Americans were all the more regularly shrouded in the news and more frequently met as sources than before the occasions of 9/11. They were allowed to represent themsel

Friday, August 21, 2020

Feeling Good

Feeling Good I’m in my room, clacking away on my laptop, my fingers slowly defrosting, bits of ice forced into my intestines (by Cambridge’s spooky weather) slowly melting, and I feel pretty good. It’s been a while I typed up something that wasn’t a p-set or a study paper, a consequence of the past three weeks sapping so much time. The barrage of classes, problem-sets and exams all culminated in two midterms this past Monday, alongside a p-set I turned in one Ed Sheeran song before the deadline. Needless to say, I spent a large amount of time yesterday going through way too many equations, free-body diagrams and cancer-modeling pictures, splayed in different positions. Sometimes, I work sprawled on my bed, usually when I’m reading. Mostly, I hunch over a “makeshift” tableâ€"what kind of makeshift, you definitely don’t want to know. A few times, I sit on the floor and try to think things through. For rather difficult problems, sitting seems kind of hard to do while thinking of solutions, so I like to walk around in small circles, muttering to myself, twirling my fingers in the air, undoubtedly looking insane to any invisible observers. There are these spurts of time that feel like a great, cool intake of air after you’ve held your breath for way too long, spurts that come typically after curling the final integral sign onto the last problem of a p-set or after drawing a sad smiley on the final page of a difficult midterm and hoping you get credit for the dimples. And suddenly, you’re kind of…free? Only for a while, but yes, it feels like temporary freedom, to just take a breath and relax without feeling too guilty. This is quite the rant, and I guess it’s one born of euphoria. I’m done with midterms for the semester. No more exams until the Finals roll around in the middle of next month. There are still p-sets though, but we can forget about those for now. For now, I feel good. I also felt good last Friday. I had just finished a calculus midterm exam…and it felt odd because that was the first time in MIT I had completed an exam with several minutes to spare. This wasn’t why I felt good though. I turned in my exam paper and headed to my dorm. On arrival, I saw my name on the big screen in the Foo Lounge of Random Hall, the screen that indicates the presence of mail. I wasn’t expecting a package, so I was curious. My first thought had been something along the lines that my international secret government spy cover had been blown, and ninjas had left some device of doom thatoh, oh, it’s just a basket. But when I took the small wrapped basket from the friendly front desk person, I realized it wasn’t just a basket. It was full of candy, chocolate-covered pretzel sticks, gummy bears, crackers, and a note from my roommate, saying in the last few lines: “thanks for being an awesome roommate; I would probably be crying in a hole right now if you weren’t here.” Me? Awesome? Clumsy, sure, but awesome? Needless to say, I stood there, smiling as widely as any person could, the ends of my mouth probably whipping past my ears in a curl. It was both unexpected and delightful, and I was grateful for it. The Cambridge Weather, to which we shall now address as Evil, saw to it that my happiness was as short-lived as possible, bringing howling winds and a spirit-drenching cold that night and the following day. The only upside to that was being able to breathe out and see white puffs of air float out like ghosts, while wondering if that was movie-esque (yes, that word is made up). However, even with multiple layers of clothingâ€"sometimes in questionable combinations of jackets, sweaters and hoodiesâ€"I still felt like I was navigating the deepest parts of a gigantic refrigerator. Over the rest of the weekend, I watched the MIT Chorallaries astound a large crowd with incredible singing, explored a bit of Cambridge, felt my dorm literally shake (construction nearby, old building, long story), spammed a mailing list with nothing but “eom”, ran around a maze of students that had brought energy, enthusiasm and cameras for the Splash weekend, and eventually got around to studying for my two midterms. Physics went fine; Biology went a whole lot better than the last time, although one of the questions about single nucleotide polymorphism chips, vaguely resembling a computer-science/advanced-combinatorics hybrid had me stumped. I have since thenâ€"by which I mean, a few seconds agoâ€"found out the answers, and have a good mind to kick myself in the head. 7.012â€"Intro Bioâ€"is definitely a very challenging intro GIR; it also has its moments. Recently, a lot of it. Beyond learning about the cold, hard facts of vesicular microsomes and transcription factors, we sometimes delve into the human workings behind those facts, the little strokes of luck that brought about certain major discoveries, the simple experiments that paved way for larger, more complex ones…and I recently got a sense of something, from one of the classes in which Eric Lander tied in everything we had learned thus far to developing drugs for a certain heart disease. I got the sense of how beyond the 1400 pages of our textbook and the words uttered in class, beyond the teeth-kicking problem sets, everything we had learned in 7.012 this semester connected like meshing gears to hold up the fabric of the world. It felt like if I really thought about these things, genomic variation, nucleotide mutations, the workings of immunology, I could see them taking on bigger forms, yielding impacts. I’m in my first semester at MIT, and I’ve struggled a lot with Biology, but I’ve also been amazed by it, and understand that over the course of the upcoming semesters, MIT is going to split my mind open. My vague appreciation of how the things we learn in class can actually translate into changing the world in some not-at-all-over-idealized way is probably going to bloom. And it feels like…it just feels like MIT is preparing us to go out there and make those impacts. I’ve never really sat down and thought to myself, “I can make a huge difference…” because on the surface, that might sound silly and nothing more than proverbial, but in 7.012, I realize it isn’t. Serendipity would play a role somewhere; a lot of it would have to come from a great amount of hard work, but MIT saw something in me, and in everyone else that calls the Institute home, and MIT said, “You can do it.” However, MIT also likely sees it in people that may never call the Institute home. The first round of admissions decisions will be out soon, and the committee is going carefully through thousands of applications, digging themselves into your lives. Hopefully, they’ll come to understand the things that get you excited, the little segments of your lives that blend like jigsaw puzzles to define you. They’ll have to make extremely tough decisions, but regardless of the outcome, there’s a hope and energy that echoed in the pagesâ€"or pdf filesâ€"of your applications, one that shouldn’t ultimately hinge on a letter of acceptance or rejection. Very soon, in a blog post or two, I’m going to talk about the journey that led me to MIT, about the events that took place during the gap year that could easily have had me elsewhere. And I think the one thing I understood from reflecting on that now is thisâ€"I had things I had woven myself so deeply around that they were a part of me, ideas or activities that got me bristling, bubbling, overwhelmed. Those things were a big part of me when I sent in my application, and the outcome of the admissions committee’s decision existed totally independent of how strongly I felt and still feel about them. MIT is preparing everyone here to make a palpable difference in the world, but what exactly does this mean? The most important tools we have are our zeals, our enthusiasms, our brimming ideas, clashing, mingling, as the resources are set forth before us, but ultimately, anything we do hinges far more on who we areâ€"before we applied here, after we got our letters of acceptance and rejection from wherever we appliedâ€"and on having the sense that, because we’ll still love science experiments, or art, or the bliss of music, or Ultimate Frisbee regardless of anything, we’ll be able to use them as a platform for development wherever we are. The stories I learn about in 7.012, of Mendel’s experiment with the peas, of the sleepless night leading to Sturtevant’s conception of a genetic map, of the great role luck played in James Gusella’s polymorphism idea, were ultimately more of tales of inquiry and perseverance paying off than of location. It’s important to never lose track of the things that make you happy, and of the mindset that you have the potential to forge great things out of them. Well, I’m hungry right now, so I’ll probably go scavenge the kitchen or hope for a free-food e-mail to land in my inbox. I get quite a number of free-food e-mails on an almost daily basis, and in fact, I think I’ll do an e-mail search right now. You see how there were four free-food e-mails this past Sunday? And one on Saturday and three on Thursday? Hopefully, there’ll be one more tonight. My senses are attuned to these kinds of e-mails like a ravenously roving satellite dish. Well, it’s been a pretty good day (he says for the millionth time). I had to stay up really late studying and didn’t get much sleep, but I took a brief power nap a few hours ago, and since then, I’ve felt great. It’s weird. I have no more work due this week. There’s a calculus problem-set for next week and a brief reading for my philosophy class, but that’s relatively light, and it feels kind of weird, kind of amazing. It’s also Thanksgiving this Thursday, but I have very little to say about that, since I’m an international student, and it’s not really a thing in Nigeria. Regardless, I definitely have a lot to be thankful forâ€"my roommate, my friends, my family, my Alpha Delta Phi brothers, the people close to me, my sense of happiness right now, the eighty-five or so Taylor Swift songs on my phone, the idea that I can always whip out words to construct my thoughts and emotions and feel good doing that. And of course, the fact that MIT is giving us two days off classes. I’ll probably spend a good portion of this week writing stories. You can read a short one I wrote a few weeks ago here, although its fairly gory. I hope you guys have an amazing Thanksgiving this week, and have the chance to reflect on the things that make you bloom, the people that make you happy, the life you get to live now, and be thankful for them. For everything. Time does tick after all.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Simple Random Sampling vs. Systematic Random Sampling

When we form a statistical sample we always need to be careful in what we are doing. There are many different kinds of sampling techniques that can be used.  Some of these are more appropriate than others. Often what we think would be one kind of sample turns out to be another type. This can be seen when comparing two types of random samples. A simple random sample and a systematic random sample are two different types of sampling techniques. However, the difference between these types of samples is subtle and easy to overlook.  We will compare systematic random samples with simple random samples. Systematic Random vs. Simple Random To begin with, we will look at the definitions of the two types of samples that we are interested in.  Both of these types of samples are random and suppose that everyone in the population is equally likely to be a member of the sample. But, as we will see, not all random samples are the same. The difference between these types of samples has to do with the other part of the definition of a simple random sample. To be a simple random sample of size n, every group of size n must be equally likely of being formed. A systematic random sample relies on some sort of ordering to choose sample members. While the first individual may be chosen by a random method, subsequent members are chosen by means of a predetermined process. The system that we use is not considered to be random, and so some samples that would be formed as a simple random sample cannot be formed as a systematic random sample. An Example Using a Movie Theater To see why this is not the case, we will look at an example. We will pretend that there is a movie theater with 1000 seats, all of which are filled. There are 500 rows with 20 seats in each row. The population here is the entire group of 1000 people at the movie. We will compare a simple random sample of ten moviegoers with a systematic random sample of the same size. A simple random sample can be formed by using a table of random digits. After numbering the seats 000, 001, 002, through 999, we randomly choose a portion of a table of random digits. The first ten distinct three digit blocks that we read in the table are the seats of the people who will form our sample.For a systematic random sample, we can begin by choosing a seat in the theater at random (perhaps this is done by generating a single random number from 000 to 999). Following this random selection, we choose this seat’s occupant as the first member of our sample. The remaining members of the sample are from the seats that are in the nine rows directly behind the first seat (if we run out of rows since our initial seat was in the back of the theater, we start over in the front of the theater and choose seats that line up with our initial seat). For both types of samples, everyone in the theater is equally likely to be chosen. Although we obtain a set of 10 randomly chosen people in both cases, the sampling methods are different. For a simple random sample, it is possible to have a sample that contains two people who are sitting next to each other. However, by the way that we have constructed our systematic random sample, it is impossible not only to have seat neighbors in the same sample but even to have a sample containing two people from the same row. What’s the Difference? The difference between simple random samples and systematic random samples may seem to be slight, but we need to be careful. In order to correctly use many results in statistics, we need to suppose that the processes used to obtain our data were random and independent. When we use a systematic sample, even if randomness is utilized, we no longer have independence.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

What It Is For The Anthropology Of Religion - 957 Words

In 1966 Geertz described religion as ‘(1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long lasting moods and motivations in men by (3) formulating conceptions of general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of faculty that (5) the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic’ (Geertz, 1966 :4), a quote which Asad refers to as ‘perhaps the most influential, certainly the most accomplished, anthropological definition of religion to have appeared in the last two decades’ (Asad, 1983 :237). In this essay I intend to briefly outline what it is Geertz aims to achieve with his approach, concentrating mainly on his focus on symbols and identifying the contributions this idea has given to the anthropology of religion. I will also touch upon the similarities and differences between Geertz’s (1966) definition and that of Asad (1983). Geertz’s describes his definition of religion as a universal one but geared to focus on the particular; one that can be applied to all religions, and once identified as a religion we can distinguish a separation between religion and other entities i.e. politics, therefore allowing us to discuss the relationship which intertwines them. Geertz describes culture as ‘a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life’ (Geertz, 1966 :3), thus the ways of which we understand whatShow MoreRelatedPhilosophy, Phenomenology And Comparative Approachs851 Words   |  4 Pagesthere are six different approaches to religion. One approach is the psychological or individual aspect. Then there is the sociological approach which looks at group behavior. Then there is also the anthropological approach which is looks at societies, cultures and things of that nature. L astly there is the philosophy, phenomenology and comparative approachs. The psychological approach to religion allows us to examine the individual. The psychology of religion is to understand the personal religiousRead MoreThe Between Mccutcheon, Marx, And Nietzsche s Theories On Religion921 Words   |  4 PagesRussell McCutcheon urges terms like â€Å"religion† and â€Å"religious† should not be used by scholars when referring to the study of religion. McCutcheon even suggests these words should be abandoned and removed from our vocabulary all together. He claims studying social sciences like anthropology, sociology, and psychology and using appropriate terminology will lead to a more accurate understanding of why we as humans are religious and how our religion ultimately affects our behaviors. 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Simply put, anthropology is the study of humanity and the origins of human beings. Learning about the humanities can help those studying anthropology because the humanities looks into understanding and exploring the human condition. There is an idea of culture that is used to describe what humans do. Anthropology explores what culture is, how it influences society, and why the idea of culture is important. Studying anthropology also looks into the variousRead MoreReligion And Ritual s Effect On Neolithic Culture1138 Words   |  5 PagesMany historians and anthropologists speculate what pre-agricultural force could have compelled these people to create this large complex; religion is one example of a powerful force, one that can even transcend millennia. Even with much evidence to suggest Gobekli Tepe’s religious relations, scholars can only speculate what may have really happened here; Gobekli Tepe, however, is not the only example. 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Social anthropology focuses onâ€Å"the study of human beings and societies viewed primarily as both the creators and the creations of culture . . . sociology of religion . . . focuses its attention on social behavior and the way in which religion interacts with other dimensions of our social experience† (LivingstonRead MoreA Dom inant Force Or Trend Within Clothing, Opinion, Arts, And Culture Essay1055 Words   |  5 Pagesetc. People in society are often motivated to involve themselves with what is mainstream so they can fit in and thrive. Majority group- an ethnic/racial group that has the largest population and usually the greatest economic and political power in a society. Marcel Mauss- introduced the qualities of gift giving, author of The Gift. Mauss was also a French sociologist, his work often bounced between sociology and anthropology. Marxism- the political and economic theories of Karl Marx, later developed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Progressive Era ( 1900-1919 ) - 1544 Words

The Progressive Era (1900-1919) presented solutions to the social, political, and economic changes in the United States of America which had surfaced in the framework of the rapid changes produced during the Industrial Revolution and the growth of modern capitalism in America. Many progressives believed that these changes marked the end of the old order and invited the beginning of a new era fit for the industrial age. Others believed that these changes marked a necessity for improvement rather than complete eradication. Regardless, American citizens utilized their ability to enrich social circumstances, both politically and morally, to guarantee social justice around 1865-1929. In a general sense, the conservative goals of this period substantiated the Liberal developments passed by Progressive leaders. Corresponding to the definition of conservatism, â€Å"a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, stressing established institutions, and preferring gradual development to abrupt change† , the triumph of Conservatism existed in a sense that efforts were made to maintain established philosophies vital to an industrial social order. The Progressive leaders essentially wanted to perpetuate Liberal reform to bring upon general conservatism. Therefore, the 19th century can truly be defined by both the â€Å"triumph of conservatism† and the success of progressives. An array of accomplishments from the Progressive’s battle were conservative in nature. The fight againstShow MoreRelatedWomen During The Progressive Era987 Words   |  4 PagesWoman in the progressive era What is a woman’s role? Is it to be a housewife and take care of her husband and children? Or is it much more then that. Between the years 1897- 1917 the progressive era came of age. This era not only created rapid economic growth but also created a voice for woman. As woman began to have a voice they were ready to use it and make a change that would affect American history forever. The progressive era was an era of change. The great depression had just ended andRead MoreProgressive Era Essay712 Words   |  3 PagesThe Progressive Era The progressive era was a time period in America after reconstruction that took place from 1900 to 1920. The progressive era focused mainly on social and political reform, trying to fix Americas economy by working towards equal conditions for individuals, stopping political corruption and increasing government intervention on social and economic issues. Progressivists were social activists and political reformers working to improve conditions and the treatment of the AmericanRead MoreThe Progressive Era And Political Reform1330 Words   |  6 Pages The Progressive era was a period around 1890-1920, in which the rise of social activism became apparent as well as political reform. Americans during this time began to move away from rural and began to colonize cities. Progressive activists at the time sought to eliminate government corruption, increase regulation in business practices, and address and resolve health issues in the work force. Journalists known as muckrakers were catalys ts of change by informing the public about prominent issuesRead MoreImportance Of Unions : History And Significance946 Words   |  4 Pagesworkers and/or colors. Subsequently, at the beginning of the 1900’s the wage continued to be low, child labor and long work days were common with little to no healthcare, and workers had unsafe working conditions. The labor movement in the United States grew from the muckrakers informing the public of the need to protect the workers and provide them with fair and reasonable wages, hours, and working conditions (Leading the way: The progressive movement, 1890-1920, 2014, p. 610-612). The labor movementRead MoreDbq on Prohibition805 Words   |  4 PagesDBQ The prohibition movement in the United States was very successful during the era of progressive reform, from 1900 to 1919. This is because of the social composition of the prohibitionists, their motives, strategy, and pressure-group tactics, and the relationship of prohibitionism to progressive reform. The prohibitionists attacked saloons with a passion, they appealed to womens rights, and they tried every mean possible to keep their areas ‘dry. Prohibitionists consisted of a few groupsRead MoreAp Exam Essays1660 Words   |  7 Pages1775–1783. 3. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Confine your answer to the period 1845–1861. 4. Analyze the roles that women played in Progressive Era reforms from the 1880s through 1920. Focus your essay on TWO of the following. †¢ Politics †¢ Social conditions †¢ Labor and working conditions 5. 5. Explain the causes and consequences of TWO of the following population movementsRead MoreThrough Women s Eyes By Ellen Carol Dubois And Lynn Dumenil898 Words   |  4 Pagesmy oral history in which I would like to make some recommendations. My oral history included aspects of education such as Civil Rights Acts and equality in education. The first chapter, Chapter 6 â€Å"Reconstructing Women’s Lives North and South, 1865-1900† contained documents, and visual sources. I found the visual source on higher education very useful and informative. 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In December 1865, eight months after the Civil War ended, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted: slavery was abolished. However, in the late 19th century and early 20th century, the majority of white Americans continued to strongly believe in ‘racist theories of black biological inferiority’ and therefore were able to justifyRead MoreApush Dbqs Essay2248 Words   |  9 Pagesfollowing documents and your knowledge of the period from 1880 to 1925 to construct your answer. 2007 DBQ (Form A) Analyze the ways in which technology, government policy and economic conditions changes American agriculture in the period 1865 – 1900. In your answer be sure to evaluate farmers’ responses to these changes. (Form B) In what ways did the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson respond to the political, economic and social problems of the United States? Assess the effectiveness of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Reframing Organization for Structured and Vertical Hierarchy

Question: Discuss about theReframing Organization for Structured and Vertical Hierarchy. Answer: Similar to individuals, businesses have their own way of development and that too at their own pace. There are different factors that have an impact on the way businesses develop, starting from the personalities of their leaders to their chosen industry and then continuing to the economic situation. The outcomes of that can range from being a structured, vertical hierarchy to being a loose and horizontal free-form group. Businesses have the option of developing when teams split off and pursue their goals or when individuals come together for one common cause. For the structures of an organization, there are certain universal structural parameters that exist, which present tensions and challenges for the organization (Loeb 2016). It is the responsibility of the organizations that they effectively respond to these, which is inclusive of environment (regulates comparative requirement for tractability),core processes (need alignment with arrangement),size and age (intricacy and conventio nalism increase),workforce physiognomies (controls level of administration and discretion required in daily routine), information technology (obtainability of information and rapidity of dissemination), and tactic and goals (lucidity and constancy concerns regulate necessity for adaptation). These structural necessities come in combination for dictating the optimal social architecture for every organization that are under this circumstances. Different ways are there for designing any organization (Muscat 2014). Two key approaches among these are: Differentiation - how to allocate responsibilities across the organization? Integration how to integrate varied efforts in quest of common goals? Differentiation Inside every living systems task allocation happens and roles get specialized. It is effective in getting the work done. The behaviour of specialization channels is by the prescription of what one person would be doing and not doing for accomplishing work tasks. These normally restrict the individual worker discretion in the context of predictability, uniformity, and reliability. After the decision is taken regarding who is doing which work in relation with their roles or positions, another level of the same situation comes into play (Boston 2016). Working units in organizations additionally handles the work effort in terms of a lot of things which includes: knowledge or skill time period, i.e. shift product customer or client geography or region process, e.g. customer order or customer delivery Along with specialization, different problems also arise. It is necessary for organizations to mesh or coordinate different attempts are avoiding negative influence on performance. Balancing so many issues regarding structural feeds, relative to the second equation or issue of coordination of effort. Integration It is the characteristics of organizations to manage and coordinate the individual efforts along with the group ones with the help of a variety of strategies. This takes place in primarily two ways: lateral less formal, and vertical - chain of command. Inside vertical coordination, coordination is seen among the tops and control of work among the bottoms. This takes place with the help of rules, authority, planning, rules and policies and control systems. Authority is existent among bosses who have formal authority. The rules and policies are there to specify the right way of doing things, limiting discretion and adding predictability. The planning and control systems make use of data for measuring and forecasting. Inside lateral coordination, using the terms of less formal, quicker, simpler and additionally flexible in description of the lateral methods that fill gaps that are rules, commands, and network. Meetings are the corner store of informal contacts and stalks exchanging. Task forces ate collaborated with diverse specialties of people. The matrix structure is there for makings and the cost common thing in global organizations have wishes of meshing arcos the countries and regions. Organizations that have social networks, an d lateral communication tools, try adapting to the hierarchies and there are special teams who coordinate for dealing with turf battles or any concerns (Ovchinnikov 2013). A group is a gathering of no less than two individuals. A group is an aggregate of people. They connect with each other. They think about each other. They have a run of the mill target. They find in themselves to be a group. The word dynamics is a Greece word meaning 'force'. Hereafter group dynamics infers the examination of forces working inside a group for the social correspondence. A group is an aggregation of individuals who work together with each other to such a degree, to the point that one person's exercises influence the others. In affiliations, most work is done inside groups. How groups work has basic consequences for progressive productivity. Groups where people get along, feel the need to add to the team, and are fit for arranging their undertakings may have prevalent levels, while teams depicted by unprecedented levels of contention or debilitating vibe may cripple members of the workforce (Levi 2015). In affiliations, you may encounter particular sorts of groups. Informal work groups are contained no less than two individuals who are connected with each other in ways not prescribed by the formal affiliation. Group dynamics incorporates the dynamics of affiliation plan inside the group, the path in which decisions are made in the group, how work finishes, and how member's needs are satisfied. The participations that effect the perspectives and lead of people when they are grouped with others through either choice or inadvertent conditions (Hogg Terry, 2014). The group dynamics fuse both the group content and the group processes. Group content insinuates the specific endeavors, issues, focuses, or conditions tended to by the group all things considered. Group processes implies the relationship between the group members. Process also suggests most of the components that add to the group processes. Both content and process happen at the same time and are comparatively basic (Murphey et al. 2012). Focuses of group dynamics are: To recognize and separate the social processes that impact on group headway and performance. To pick up the capacities imperative to intervene and upgrade individual and group performance in a definitive setting. To fabricate more productive relationship by applying methodology that give beneficial outcome on target achievement (Bolman Deal 2017). Informal roles: roles are fluid and propelling; groups enhance the circumstance when task roles line up with particular differentiationsbring various interests, aptitudes, and fluctuating degrees of excitement; benefit by assets while restricting liabilities; basic to bring these things out past any binding impact as opposed to avoiding them Norms: informal life insisting rule that manage how the group limits and how members act Networks: informal cases of who relates to whom; teams with more informal ties were more feasible and more slanted to stay together than teams in which members had less affiliations Interpersonal conflict: conflict that is smothered tends to reemerge again and again; conflict is something worth being grateful for Guidelines to manage conflict in groups: ? Develop capacities - in group process ? Agree on fundamentals destinations and procedures ? Search for points of interest in like way - on which to fabricate understanding ? Experiment - in separating divergent viewpoints ? Doubt your perfection see OK assortment of appraisals as an advantage ? Treat differentiates as a group commitment conflict ought to be effectively regulated and not kept up a key separation from Leadership and Decision making: Leadership empowers groups to develop a typical capacity to know east from west and obligation; key limit is administering relationship with external constituents; same individual may not be comparably feasible in all conditions (Shapiro Stefkovich, 2016) Incredible leaders are tricky to both task and process. They select others adequately in managing both. Convincing leaders help group members pass on and work together, while less capable leaders attempt to run and get their own particular musings recognized. Leadership is one of the most crucial aspect of the organization as it guides the organization to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. According to the contingency theory, there is no particular way of leading the organization and it is completely reliant on the external and internal factors of the organization. This means that based on the situation the leaders will have to adapt and apply the leadership theories. This can be considered as their own style of leadership which they apply based on the situation they have to face. The leadership is based on the relationship at the human level where the leaders can provide clarity to its subordinates about their goals and objectives. The leadership should have the ability to provide rewards and at the same time has the ability to provide punishment when it is required. These qualities will have to be present within a leader in the right amount and balance otherwise it will lead to the failure in the leadership (Northouse 2015). The least preferred scale (LPC) has been developed in the contingency theory to identify the traits that is not liked by the leaders (Chemers 2014). As stated by the contingency theory it can be said that effectiveness of leadership will depends on situation, personality of the leader, make-up of the group and nature of the task. The personality of the leader is the main factor which will decide how the workforce is accepting the leader. This will also ensure how the leader will get involved in the task and if the leader can exercise control over the workforce of the organization. Least preferred scale is way of identify in g the effectiveness of the leader and the leaders with high LPC signifies that they have good communication skills, interpersonal skills and they are able to make good human relations. The good relation that the leader can create with the workforce of the organization will compensate for other factors such as the orientation of the task and the issues involved in it. The leaders will low LPC signifies have low ability of bonding with their subordinates which signifies that they have to rely on the nature of th e task to ensure leadership. However, there are certain complications that are involved in this case, as the task will have to defined in a proper way to avoid any kind of issues. However, it is not possible to provide proper definition to all the task so it means that human relation is one of the most important factor for ensuring effective leadership. However, in a corporate environment where the situations are structured in a well-defined way the need for personal relationship is minimal. However, interpersonal skills of the leader will ensure a motivated workforce which will able to be more productive than the workforce who is less motivated. In general, the leaders with low LPC are effective as the organization structure is maintained and most of the task of the organizations are well defined. However, in times of emergency situation and when the three factors come in to consideration, the leader with high LPC will have an upper hand and will be able to manage the situation in a better way (Antonakis 2017). However, the parameters that have been mentioned in the contingency theory are vague as being supportive could have different meaning in different context. Therefore, providing motivation to their workforce can be considered supportive and at the same time providing criticism to their workforce can be considered to be supportive. However, this theory will have to integrated in the social networking models so that the organizational integrity can be tested. The parameters of this theory will have to be quantified and measured with sophisticated modern tool to identify the effectiveness of leadership (Ayman Adams, 2012). Thus, from the above discussion it can be said communication skills and developing good human relations is one of the most effective way of leadership and managing workforce of any organization. References and bibliography Antonakis, J. (2017).The nature of leadership. Sage publications. Ayman, R., Adams, S. (2012). Contingencies, context, situation, and leadership.The nature of leadership, 218-255. Bergman, J. Z., Rentsch, J. R., Small, E. E., Davenport, S. W., Bergman, S. M. (2012). The shared leadership process in decision-making teams.The Journal of social psychology,152(1), 17-42. Bolman, L. G., Deal, T. E. (2017).Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley Sons. Bolton, W. (2016).Differentiation and integration(Vol. 5). Routledge. Chemers, M. (2014).An integrative theory of leadership. Psychology Press. Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J. (Eds.). (2014).Social identity processes in organizational contexts. Psychology Press. Levi, D. (2015).Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications. Loeb, P. A. (2016). Differentiation and integration. InReal Analysis(pp. 79-93). Springer International Publishing. Murphey, T., Falout, J., Fukada, Y., Fukuda, T. (2012). Group dynamics: Collaborative agency in present communities of imagination.Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice, 220-238. Muscat, J. (2014). Differentiation and Integration. InFunctional Analysis(pp. 257-274). Springer International Publishing. Northouse, P. G. (2015).Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications. Ovchinnikov, S., 2013. Differentiation and Integration. InMeasure, Integral, Derivative(pp. 97-127). Springer New York. Pettigrew, A. M. (2014).The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge. Phipps, K. A. (2012). Spirituality and strategic leadership: The influence of spiritual beliefs on strategic decision making.Journal of business ethics,106(2), 177-189. Shapiro, J. P., Stefkovich, J. A. (2016).Ethical leadership and decision making in education: Applying theoretical perspectives to complex dilemmas. Routledge.