Sunday, May 24, 2020
When we form a statistical sample we always need to be careful in what we are doing. There are many different kinds of sampling techniques that can be used.Ã Some of these are more appropriate than others. Often what we think would be one kind of sample turns out to be another type. This can be seen when comparing two types of random samples. A simple random sample and a systematic random sample are two different types of sampling techniques. However, the difference between these types of samples is subtle and easy to overlook.Ã We will compare systematic random samples with simple random samples. Systematic Random vs. Simple Random To begin with, we will look at the definitions of the two types of samples that we are interested in.Ã Both of these types of samples are random and suppose that everyone in the population is equally likely to be a member of the sample. But, as we will see, not all random samples are the same. The difference between these types of samples has to do with the other part of the definition of a simple random sample. To be a simple random sample of size n, every group of size n must be equally likely of being formed. A systematic random sample relies on some sort of ordering to choose sample members. While the first individual may be chosen by a random method, subsequent members are chosen by means of a predetermined process. The system that we use is not considered to be random, and so some samples that would be formed as a simple random sample cannot be formed as a systematic random sample. An Example Using a Movie Theater To see why this is not the case, we will look at an example. We will pretend that there is a movie theater with 1000 seats, all of which are filled. There are 500 rows with 20 seats in each row. The population here is the entire group of 1000 people at the movie. We will compare a simple random sample of ten moviegoers with a systematic random sample of the same size. A simple random sample can be formed by using a table of random digits. After numbering the seats 000, 001, 002, through 999, we randomly choose a portion of a table of random digits. The first ten distinct three digit blocks that we read in the table are the seats of the people who will form our sample.For a systematic random sample, we can begin by choosing a seat in the theater at random (perhaps this is done by generating a single random number from 000 to 999). Following this random selection, we choose this seatÃ¢â¬â¢s occupant as the first member of our sample. The remaining members of the sample are from the seats that are in the nine rows directly behind the first seat (if we run out of rows since our initial seat was in the back of the theater, we start over in the front of the theater and choose seats that line up with our initial seat). For both types of samples, everyone in the theater is equally likely to be chosen. Although we obtain a set of 10 randomly chosen people in both cases, the sampling methods are different. For a simple random sample, it is possible to have a sample that contains two people who are sitting next to each other. However, by the way that we have constructed our systematic random sample, it is impossible not only to have seat neighbors in the same sample but even to have a sample containing two people from the same row. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Difference? The difference between simple random samples and systematic random samples may seem to be slight, but we need to be careful. In order to correctly use many results in statistics, we need to suppose that the processes used to obtain our data were random and independent. When we use a systematic sample, even if randomness is utilized, we no longer have independence.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
In 1966 Geertz described religion as Ã¢â¬Ë(1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long lasting moods and motivations in men by (3) formulating conceptions of general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of faculty that (5) the moods and motivations seem uniquely realisticÃ¢â¬â¢ (Geertz, 1966 :4), a quote which Asad refers to as Ã¢â¬Ëperhaps the most influential, certainly the most accomplished, anthropological definition of religion to have appeared in the last two decadesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Asad, 1983 :237). In this essay I intend to briefly outline what it is Geertz aims to achieve with his approach, concentrating mainly on his focus on symbols and identifying the contributions this idea has given to the anthropology of religion. I will also touch upon the similarities and differences between GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s (1966) definition and that of Asad (1983). GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s describes his definition of religion as a universal one but geared to focus on the particular; one that can be applied to all religions, and once identified as a religion we can distinguish a separation between religion and other entities i.e. politics, therefore allowing us to discuss the relationship which intertwines them. Geertz describes culture as Ã¢â¬Ëa system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Geertz, 1966 :3), thus the ways of which we understand whatShow MoreRelatedPhilosophy, Phenomenology And Comparative Approachs851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthere are six different approaches to religion. One approach is the psychological or individual aspect. Then there is the sociological approach which looks at group behavior. Then there is also the anthropological approach which is looks at societies, cultures and things of that nature. L astly there is the philosophy, phenomenology and comparative approachs. The psychological approach to religion allows us to examine the individual. The psychology of religion is to understand the personal religiousRead MoreThe Between Mccutcheon, Marx, And Nietzsche s Theories On Religion921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRussell McCutcheon urges terms like Ã¢â¬Å"religionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"religiousÃ¢â¬ should not be used by scholars when referring to the study of religion. McCutcheon even suggests these words should be abandoned and removed from our vocabulary all together. He claims studying social sciences like anthropology, sociology, and psychology and using appropriate terminology will lead to a more accurate understanding of why we as humans are religious and how our religion ultimately affects our behaviors. Feuerbach, Marx,Read More Interview With Pakistani Essay1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInterview With Pakistani Ethnology is the part of anthropology that focuses on the cultures of the world; its written results are published in ethnographies. While conducting my first ethnology I learned more about my friend Mohammed than I have learned about him in the seven years I have been acquainted with him. Moe works at a convenience store and gas station that I have been frequenting since before I was even old enough to have a car to fill up with gas. Moe is originally from Pakistan,Read MoreEssay about Cultural Studies 1st Exam1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesExamination Due September 28th by Midnight Name ___________________________________________________________ Part One: Identifications (Write the correct terminology or name in the space provided by each statement. Some terms may not be used. Anthropology Human Race Orthopraxy Arbitrariness Informants Paralanguage Christianity Language Phonology Cultural Hybridization Language Family Pidgin Culture Language Ideology Priests Diachronic Langue Primatologists Dogma Read MoreReligious Institutions And Personal Devotions985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In my initial position paper, I differentiated between faith, works, and religion, and concluded that the academic study of religion is similar to the academic study of other cultural identities, such as race and gender. What I failed to understand, however, was how complex the boundary between religious institutions and personal devotions really was. Popular religion, as I have come to learn, assumes qualities of both public and private worship and belief and illustrates a far greater struggleRead MoreEssay about The Study of Anthropology and the Humanities1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescorrelates to the study of anthropology. Simply put, anthropology is the study of humanity and the origins of human beings. Learning about the humanities can help those studying anthropology because the humanities looks into understanding and exploring the human condition. There is an idea of culture that is used to describe what humans do. Anthropology explores what culture is, how it influences society, and why the idea of culture is important. Studying anthropology also looks into the variousRead MoreReligion And Ritual s Effect On Neolithic Culture1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMany historians and anthropologists speculate what pre-agricultural force could have compelled these people to create this large complex; religion is one example of a powerful force, one that can even transcend millennia. Even with much evidence to suggest Gobekli TepeÃ¢â¬â¢s religious relations, scholars can only speculate what may have really happened here; Gobekli Tepe, however, is not the only example. From what the evidence that has been collected, religion and religious rituals contributed to the developmentRead MoreHow Religion And Culture Influence People s Views On Outer Space1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are many different types of religions and cultures in this world. Many of which teach and influence pe opleÃ¢â¬â¢s views and actions on their daily lives. Everyone is entitled to, and has the right to, believe and practice in whatever it is they choose to. Different types of religions around the world have different meanings and teach different ways in viewing the world. We all know how religion and cultures can be an influence on our planet, but does anyone really know how it influences peoplesRead MoreAmitav Ghoshs In an Antique Land1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesas a doctoral student who is given the opportunity to study social anthropology. As we learned and discussed throughout this course, there are a variety of methods in which to study religion. Social anthropology focuses onÃ¢â¬Å"the study of human beings and societies viewed primarily as both the creators and the creations of culture . . . sociology of religion . . . focuses its attention on social behavior and the way in which religion interacts with other dimensions of our social experienceÃ¢â¬ (LivingstonRead MoreA Dom inant Force Or Trend Within Clothing, Opinion, Arts, And Culture Essay1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesetc. People in society are often motivated to involve themselves with what is mainstream so they can fit in and thrive. Majority group- an ethnic/racial group that has the largest population and usually the greatest economic and political power in a society. Marcel Mauss- introduced the qualities of gift giving, author of The Gift. Mauss was also a French sociologist, his work often bounced between sociology and anthropology. Marxism- the political and economic theories of Karl Marx, later developed
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Progressive Era (1900-1919) presented solutions to the social, political, and economic changes in the United States of America which had surfaced in the framework of the rapid changes produced during the Industrial Revolution and the growth of modern capitalism in America. Many progressives believed that these changes marked the end of the old order and invited the beginning of a new era fit for the industrial age. Others believed that these changes marked a necessity for improvement rather than complete eradication. Regardless, American citizens utilized their ability to enrich social circumstances, both politically and morally, to guarantee social justice around 1865-1929. In a general sense, the conservative goals of this period substantiated the Liberal developments passed by Progressive leaders. Corresponding to the definition of conservatism, Ã¢â¬Å"a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, stressing established institutions, and preferring gradual development to abrupt changeÃ¢â¬ , the triumph of Conservatism existed in a sense that efforts were made to maintain established philosophies vital to an industrial social order. The Progressive leaders essentially wanted to perpetuate Liberal reform to bring upon general conservatism. Therefore, the 19th century can truly be defined by both the Ã¢â¬Å"triumph of conservatismÃ¢â¬ and the success of progressives. An array of accomplishments from the ProgressiveÃ¢â¬â¢s battle were conservative in nature. The fight againstShow MoreRelatedWomen During The Progressive Era987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWoman in the progressive era What is a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role? Is it to be a housewife and take care of her husband and children? Or is it much more then that. Between the years 1897- 1917 the progressive era came of age. This era not only created rapid economic growth but also created a voice for woman. As woman began to have a voice they were ready to use it and make a change that would affect American history forever. The progressive era was an era of change. The great depression had just ended andRead MoreProgressive Era Essay712 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Progressive Era The progressive era was a time period in America after reconstruction that took place from 1900 to 1920. The progressive era focused mainly on social and political reform, trying to fix Americas economy by working towards equal conditions for individuals, stopping political corruption and increasing government intervention on social and economic issues. Progressivists were social activists and political reformers working to improve conditions and the treatment of the AmericanRead MoreThe Progressive Era And Political Reform1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Progressive era was a period around 1890-1920, in which the rise of social activism became apparent as well as political reform. Americans during this time began to move away from rural and began to colonize cities. Progressive activists at the time sought to eliminate government corruption, increase regulation in business practices, and address and resolve health issues in the work force. Journalists known as muckrakers were catalys ts of change by informing the public about prominent issuesRead MoreImportance Of Unions : History And Significance946 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesworkers and/or colors. Subsequently, at the beginning of the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s the wage continued to be low, child labor and long work days were common with little to no healthcare, and workers had unsafe working conditions. The labor movement in the United States grew from the muckrakers informing the public of the need to protect the workers and provide them with fair and reasonable wages, hours, and working conditions (Leading the way: The progressive movement, 1890-1920, 2014, p. 610-612). The labor movementRead MoreDbq on Prohibition805 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDBQ The prohibition movement in the United States was very successful during the era of progressive reform, from 1900 to 1919. This is because of the social composition of the prohibitionists, their motives, strategy, and pressure-group tactics, and the relationship of prohibitionism to progressive reform. The prohibitionists attacked saloons with a passion, they appealed to womens rights, and they tried every mean possible to keep their areas Ãâdry. Prohibitionists consisted of a few groupsRead MoreAp Exam Essays1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1775Ã¢â¬â1783. 3. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Confine your answer to the period 1845Ã¢â¬â1861. 4. Analyze the roles that women played in Progressive Era reforms from the 1880s through 1920. Focus your essay on TWO of the following. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Politics Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social conditions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labor and working conditions 5. 5. Explain the causes and consequences of TWO of the following population movementsRead MoreThrough Women s Eyes By Ellen Carol Dubois And Lynn Dumenil898 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmy oral history in which I would like to make some recommendations. My oral history included aspects of education such as Civil Rights Acts and equality in education. The first chapter, Chapter 6 Ã¢â¬Å"Reconstructing WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Lives North and South, 1865-1900Ã¢â¬ contained documents, and visual sources. I found the visual source on higher education very useful and informative. However, the chapter never explicitly discussed education or set the stage for education advancements during the postbellum yearsRead MoreThe Issue Of Women s Rights1796 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights in the Early 1900-1920s Rody Elder History 122 Professor Webb March 23, 2015 The issue of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights has been a subject of debate for a long period of time. Despite women having equal rights as men as enshrined in the constitutions of various countries and the universal declaration of human rights, in most cases the society has never granted the women the rights as they are supposed to enjoy them. In all the institutions in the society, the women have played the secondRead MoreBlack Americans During The Civil War1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Between the years 1900 and 1919, Black Americans were able to see very few but significant changes in terms of the social, political and economic condition. In December 1865, eight months after the Civil War ended, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted: slavery was abolished. However, in the late 19th century and early 20th century, the majority of white Americans continued to strongly believe in Ã¢â¬Ëracist theories of black biological inferiorityÃ¢â¬â¢ and therefore were able to justifyRead MoreApush Dbqs Essay2248 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesfollowing documents and your knowledge of the period from 1880 to 1925 to construct your answer. 2007 DBQ (Form A) Analyze the ways in which technology, government policy and economic conditions changes American agriculture in the period 1865 Ã¢â¬â 1900. In your answer be sure to evaluate farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to these changes. (Form B) In what ways did the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson respond to the political, economic and social problems of the United States? Assess the effectiveness of
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theReframing Organization for Structured and Vertical Hierarchy. Answer: Similar to individuals, businesses have their own way of development and that too at their own pace. There are different factors that have an impact on the way businesses develop, starting from the personalities of their leaders to their chosen industry and then continuing to the economic situation. The outcomes of that can range from being a structured, vertical hierarchy to being a loose and horizontal free-form group. Businesses have the option of developing when teams split off and pursue their goals or when individuals come together for one common cause. For the structures of an organization, there are certain universal structural parameters that exist, which present tensions and challenges for the organization (Loeb 2016). It is the responsibility of the organizations that they effectively respond to these, which is inclusive of environment (regulates comparative requirement for tractability),core processes (need alignment with arrangement),size and age (intricacy and conventio nalism increase),workforce physiognomies (controls level of administration and discretion required in daily routine), information technology (obtainability of information and rapidity of dissemination), and tactic and goals (lucidity and constancy concerns regulate necessity for adaptation). These structural necessities come in combination for dictating the optimal social architecture for every organization that are under this circumstances. Different ways are there for designing any organization (Muscat 2014). Two key approaches among these are: Differentiation - how to allocate responsibilities across the organization? Integration how to integrate varied efforts in quest of common goals? Differentiation Inside every living systems task allocation happens and roles get specialized. It is effective in getting the work done. The behaviour of specialization channels is by the prescription of what one person would be doing and not doing for accomplishing work tasks. These normally restrict the individual worker discretion in the context of predictability, uniformity, and reliability. After the decision is taken regarding who is doing which work in relation with their roles or positions, another level of the same situation comes into play (Boston 2016). Working units in organizations additionally handles the work effort in terms of a lot of things which includes: knowledge or skill time period, i.e. shift product customer or client geography or region process, e.g. customer order or customer delivery Along with specialization, different problems also arise. It is necessary for organizations to mesh or coordinate different attempts are avoiding negative influence on performance. Balancing so many issues regarding structural feeds, relative to the second equation or issue of coordination of effort. Integration It is the characteristics of organizations to manage and coordinate the individual efforts along with the group ones with the help of a variety of strategies. This takes place in primarily two ways: lateral less formal, and vertical - chain of command. Inside vertical coordination, coordination is seen among the tops and control of work among the bottoms. This takes place with the help of rules, authority, planning, rules and policies and control systems. Authority is existent among bosses who have formal authority. The rules and policies are there to specify the right way of doing things, limiting discretion and adding predictability. The planning and control systems make use of data for measuring and forecasting. Inside lateral coordination, using the terms of less formal, quicker, simpler and additionally flexible in description of the lateral methods that fill gaps that are rules, commands, and network. Meetings are the corner store of informal contacts and stalks exchanging. Task forces ate collaborated with diverse specialties of people. The matrix structure is there for makings and the cost common thing in global organizations have wishes of meshing arcos the countries and regions. Organizations that have social networks, an d lateral communication tools, try adapting to the hierarchies and there are special teams who coordinate for dealing with turf battles or any concerns (Ovchinnikov 2013). A group is a gathering of no less than two individuals. A group is an aggregate of people. They connect with each other. They think about each other. They have a run of the mill target. They find in themselves to be a group. The word dynamics is a Greece word meaning 'force'. Hereafter group dynamics infers the examination of forces working inside a group for the social correspondence. A group is an aggregation of individuals who work together with each other to such a degree, to the point that one person's exercises influence the others. In affiliations, most work is done inside groups. How groups work has basic consequences for progressive productivity. Groups where people get along, feel the need to add to the team, and are fit for arranging their undertakings may have prevalent levels, while teams depicted by unprecedented levels of contention or debilitating vibe may cripple members of the workforce (Levi 2015). In affiliations, you may encounter particular sorts of groups. Informal work groups are contained no less than two individuals who are connected with each other in ways not prescribed by the formal affiliation. Group dynamics incorporates the dynamics of affiliation plan inside the group, the path in which decisions are made in the group, how work finishes, and how member's needs are satisfied. The participations that effect the perspectives and lead of people when they are grouped with others through either choice or inadvertent conditions (Hogg Terry, 2014). The group dynamics fuse both the group content and the group processes. Group content insinuates the specific endeavors, issues, focuses, or conditions tended to by the group all things considered. Group processes implies the relationship between the group members. Process also suggests most of the components that add to the group processes. Both content and process happen at the same time and are comparatively basic (Murphey et al. 2012). Focuses of group dynamics are: To recognize and separate the social processes that impact on group headway and performance. To pick up the capacities imperative to intervene and upgrade individual and group performance in a definitive setting. To fabricate more productive relationship by applying methodology that give beneficial outcome on target achievement (Bolman Deal 2017). Informal roles: roles are fluid and propelling; groups enhance the circumstance when task roles line up with particular differentiationsbring various interests, aptitudes, and fluctuating degrees of excitement; benefit by assets while restricting liabilities; basic to bring these things out past any binding impact as opposed to avoiding them Norms: informal life insisting rule that manage how the group limits and how members act Networks: informal cases of who relates to whom; teams with more informal ties were more feasible and more slanted to stay together than teams in which members had less affiliations Interpersonal conflict: conflict that is smothered tends to reemerge again and again; conflict is something worth being grateful for Guidelines to manage conflict in groups: ? Develop capacities - in group process ? Agree on fundamentals destinations and procedures ? Search for points of interest in like way - on which to fabricate understanding ? Experiment - in separating divergent viewpoints ? Doubt your perfection see OK assortment of appraisals as an advantage ? Treat differentiates as a group commitment conflict ought to be effectively regulated and not kept up a key separation from Leadership and Decision making: Leadership empowers groups to develop a typical capacity to know east from west and obligation; key limit is administering relationship with external constituents; same individual may not be comparably feasible in all conditions (Shapiro Stefkovich, 2016) Incredible leaders are tricky to both task and process. They select others adequately in managing both. Convincing leaders help group members pass on and work together, while less capable leaders attempt to run and get their own particular musings recognized. Leadership is one of the most crucial aspect of the organization as it guides the organization to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. According to the contingency theory, there is no particular way of leading the organization and it is completely reliant on the external and internal factors of the organization. This means that based on the situation the leaders will have to adapt and apply the leadership theories. This can be considered as their own style of leadership which they apply based on the situation they have to face. The leadership is based on the relationship at the human level where the leaders can provide clarity to its subordinates about their goals and objectives. The leadership should have the ability to provide rewards and at the same time has the ability to provide punishment when it is required. These qualities will have to be present within a leader in the right amount and balance otherwise it will lead to the failure in the leadership (Northouse 2015). The least preferred scale (LPC) has been developed in the contingency theory to identify the traits that is not liked by the leaders (Chemers 2014). As stated by the contingency theory it can be said that effectiveness of leadership will depends on situation, personality of the leader, make-up of the group and nature of the task. The personality of the leader is the main factor which will decide how the workforce is accepting the leader. This will also ensure how the leader will get involved in the task and if the leader can exercise control over the workforce of the organization. Least preferred scale is way of identify in g the effectiveness of the leader and the leaders with high LPC signifies that they have good communication skills, interpersonal skills and they are able to make good human relations. The good relation that the leader can create with the workforce of the organization will compensate for other factors such as the orientation of the task and the issues involved in it. The leaders will low LPC signifies have low ability of bonding with their subordinates which signifies that they have to rely on the nature of th e task to ensure leadership. However, there are certain complications that are involved in this case, as the task will have to defined in a proper way to avoid any kind of issues. However, it is not possible to provide proper definition to all the task so it means that human relation is one of the most important factor for ensuring effective leadership. However, in a corporate environment where the situations are structured in a well-defined way the need for personal relationship is minimal. However, interpersonal skills of the leader will ensure a motivated workforce which will able to be more productive than the workforce who is less motivated. In general, the leaders with low LPC are effective as the organization structure is maintained and most of the task of the organizations are well defined. However, in times of emergency situation and when the three factors come in to consideration, the leader with high LPC will have an upper hand and will be able to manage the situation in a better way (Antonakis 2017). However, the parameters that have been mentioned in the contingency theory are vague as being supportive could have different meaning in different context. Therefore, providing motivation to their workforce can be considered supportive and at the same time providing criticism to their workforce can be considered to be supportive. However, this theory will have to integrated in the social networking models so that the organizational integrity can be tested. The parameters of this theory will have to be quantified and measured with sophisticated modern tool to identify the effectiveness of leadership (Ayman Adams, 2012). Thus, from the above discussion it can be said communication skills and developing good human relations is one of the most effective way of leadership and managing workforce of any organization. References and bibliography Antonakis, J. (2017).The nature of leadership. Sage publications. Ayman, R., Adams, S. (2012). Contingencies, context, situation, and leadership.The nature of leadership, 218-255. Bergman, J. Z., Rentsch, J. R., Small, E. E., Davenport, S. W., Bergman, S. M. (2012). The shared leadership process in decision-making teams.The Journal of social psychology,152(1), 17-42. Bolman, L. G., Deal, T. E. (2017).Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley Sons. Bolton, W. (2016).Differentiation and integration(Vol. 5). Routledge. Chemers, M. (2014).An integrative theory of leadership. Psychology Press. Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J. (Eds.). (2014).Social identity processes in organizational contexts. Psychology Press. Levi, D. (2015).Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications. Loeb, P. A. (2016). Differentiation and integration. InReal Analysis(pp. 79-93). Springer International Publishing. Murphey, T., Falout, J., Fukada, Y., Fukuda, T. (2012). Group dynamics: Collaborative agency in present communities of imagination.Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice, 220-238. Muscat, J. (2014). Differentiation and Integration. InFunctional Analysis(pp. 257-274). Springer International Publishing. Northouse, P. G. (2015).Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications. Ovchinnikov, S., 2013. Differentiation and Integration. InMeasure, Integral, Derivative(pp. 97-127). Springer New York. Pettigrew, A. M. (2014).The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge. Phipps, K. A. (2012). Spirituality and strategic leadership: The influence of spiritual beliefs on strategic decision making.Journal of business ethics,106(2), 177-189. Shapiro, J. P., Stefkovich, J. A. (2016).Ethical leadership and decision making in education: Applying theoretical perspectives to complex dilemmas. Routledge.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Compare and Contrast Catrin by Gillian Clarke with Digging by Seamus Heaney Paper In this essay I will be comparing and contrasting Digging by the Irish poet Seamus Heaney with Catrin by the Welsh poet Gillian Clarke. I will begin by discussing the aspects of Digging which includes the title, content, theme, setting, style, message and my own personal response. I will also explain what the two poems are about. Following the discussion of Digging I will then compare it with the poem Catrin. The tittle Digging creates a lot of images and plans many scenarios towards what it actually stands for. What it tells me about the poem is that Digging is the main feature and could be used to compare with other activities. It shows its about people digging with shiny spades on dirty parts of land. The setting of the poem changes due to Heaneys memories of his father and grandfather. In stanza three Heaney describes where his fathers place of work is situated. To do this he added the purpose towards what he is actually digging for. Til his straining rump among the flowerbeds. The potato drills where he was digging. (Stanza 3) We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and Contrast Catrin by Gillian Clarke with Digging by Seamus Heaney specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and Contrast Catrin by Gillian Clarke with Digging by Seamus Heaney specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and Contrast Catrin by Gillian Clarke with Digging by Seamus Heaney specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The thought of flowerbeds and potatoes creates images showing neatly spread out rows upon short, green beautiful grass. The flowerbeds add pride to where he is digging as it shows its a place well kept. To me, this scenario is described in a way that is based on an allotment. Seamus Heaney describes where his grandfather digs from stanzas six to eight. Nicking and slicing neatly, heaving sods over his shoulder, going down for the good turf. (Stanza 7) I used all of stanza seven as a quote because the words written are all relevant to describe where his grandfather works. It proves that where his grandfather digs differentiated from where his grandfather digs. This also proves that the setting changes due to Seamus Heaneys memories of his father and grandfather. The differences between the settings are shown by key words in stanzas. Good turf and Sods show that where his grandfather digs is based on a field. Flowerbeds and Potatoes shows that where his father digs is based on an allotment. The style of the poem is written in a common way. The layout consists of short effective paragraphs that includes passionate descriptive writing about his life. The literacy device Seamus Heaney uses consists of onomatopoeia throughout parts of the poem. What this means is that the formation of a word whose sound suggests its meaning. An example of onomatopoeia is used in stanza two. A clean rasping sound. (Stanza 2) When Seamus Heaney is describing what he can hear under his window, he uses the word Rasping to prove to the reader what it actually sounds like. The effect on using this device, when reading, the word Rasping creates an image showing a spade scraping against a rough surface. Another effective use of onomatopoeia is shown in stanza seven. In his stanza he is talking about how his grandfather works and what he does. To create that image for the reader showing his grandfather cutting turf, Seamus Heaney uses the word Slicing. Comparing with the example before there is no difference to as he effect it gives off. The achievement of these onomatopoeic words is that they give a clear understanding to the reader. As the poet is describing what he can see and hear, using the words Slicing and Rasping the reader will also see and hear the same. Throughout the poem Seamus Heaney describes the different kinds of digging work his father and grandfather does. He also describes how they work and the techniques they use. Against the inside knee was levered firmly. (Stanza 4) This quote is describing his fathers technique on how to stand and hold the spade. This technique to Seamus tells him that his father has been doing this kind of work for a long time. The technique was a family trade passed down from his father, which is Seamuss grandfather. By God, the old man could handle a spade. Just like his old man. (Stanza 5) As his father got his techniques from his grandfather, he also describes about his grandfathers way of digging. Slicing neatly. (Stanza 7) Cut more turf than any over man. (Stanza 6) The Slicing neatly quote proves that he was good at his job. It also shows that he had a commitment for what he was doing. Like his son, his technique must have been of high quality. The quote Cut more turf than any other man shows that he was a quick worker but also shows that Seamus is proud of what his father and grandfather do. The overall message that Seamus Heaney is trying to inform is that you dont have to follow in your familys footsteps. But Ive no spade to follow men like them. (Stanza 8) I think what this quote means is that from the start, Seamus Heaney knew that he could never be as good at digging as his father and grandfather. It might not have been that he didnt want to, I think its just that he didnt want to disappoint his familys tradition by doing it wrong. The squat pen rests. Ill dig with it. (Stanza 9) In the end Seamus Heaneys decision to become a poet was an understandable decision. Using the quote, Seamus couldnt become a digger for all kinds of reasons but then described that he could write the same way as his family digs. By God, the old man could handle a spade. Just like his old man. (Stanza 5) Using his familys skills of digging, Seamus Heaney created a simile towards his occupation. He put his effort into writing like his family did with digging and dug with his pen like they did with their spades. I thought the point of the poem was easy to understand in the way that the poet was trying to get it across. I think that Seamus Heaney was making sure that the reader would understand what it was like to hear his family digging with onomatopoeic words, Rasping. He wanted to make sure that the reader knew how good his family was at digging so that they knew he couldnt compare with them. But Ive no spade to follow men like them. (Stanza 8) I agree with the message about not having to follow in your familys footsteps or doing something you dont want to do. If you are skilled at something else, like Seamus Heaney, that person should follow their instincts. It was also an amazing comparison to relate digging to writing. Pen rests. Ill dig with it. (Stanza 9) The message in Digging was successful because it was written with a purpose and a meaning. In some cases, the message in the poem is written with out any thought towards the reader. This time Seamus Heaney wrote a message that had a meaning, which could be used in other peoples lives. Following the discussion of Digging I am now going to compare it with the poem Catrin written by Gillian Clarke. The similarity between both poems is that they have a general link to do with parent and child. In Digging Seamus Heaney the poet talks about how his father works as a digger and that he couldnt compare with him as his skills laid as a poet. In Catrin there is a bond between a mother and daughter. The mother cant understand how her daughter has grown up since the day at the hospital. The language used in both poems seems to be differed through most of the content. In the Digging poem the language used by the poet is presented in the way that he is talking about his family. Till his straining rump among the flowerbeds. (Stanza 3) In the Catrin poem the language is used differently, in fact quite the opposite. Comparing with the Digging poem, Catrin is written in a way that the mother is talking to the child instead of talking about the child. I remember you, child as I stood in a hot white room. (Lines 1-3) The way in which Digging is laid out is also different compared to Catrin. Seamus Heaney spreads out the poem into nine paragraphs. The language in all nine are about feelings but is harder to understand then Catrin. Gillian Clarke presents the poem into two paragraphs. One is about the past and the other present. This technique is easier to understand rather than Seamus Heaneys. For my conclusion I will be discussing the questions: .Which are the most significant links between the poems? . What are the major differences between both poems? . Is there more linking the poems then separating them? . Is there one poem that you could identify more with than the other? . Do you think one of the poems is more successful than the other in presenting its message? The most significant link between the two poems is of course the parent and child situation. In the Digging poem there is a father and son who have a bond. Even though the son didnt follow in his fathers footsteps in digging, he described that he was going to write just the same, as his father would dig. The squat pen rests. Ill dig with it (Stanza 9) In the Catrin poem there is a mother and a daughter who also have a bond. The similarities are that the younger generation in both families takes after their older relatives even though they dont do the same work. The major difference between the poems is that in Digging the son is imagining about his father. He talks about how he remembers his father digging under his window and the sounds he use to hear. These are the memories of what has happened. In Catrin the difference is that the mother is talking about her daughter. She talks about the past but also talks about whats actually happening in the present. I think that the poems are more similar than dissimilar. My reasons are that in both poems the people in it are parent and child and both show the same feelings. In Digging the son shows that he is happy about the memories of his father. This is linked with the mother in Catrin who remembers the birth of her daughter, which is a pleasant memory to her. I dont think there is much difference between the poems so I couldnt identify one from the other. The layout of Catrin though was easier to understand compared to digging. One paragraph of happy memories and one of worried feelings made it easy to get the message. In Digging the spaced out paragraphs made it harder to understand as the information was changing in every stanza. My personal opinion is that Catrin is a more successful poem as the layout of the poem made it easier to understand the message.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Essay sample on #8220;The Important Elements of Cinematography#8221; Cinematography is so important in film that sometimes a plot can be weak, but the camera work, lighting, and other visual elements make for a pleasing experience for viewers. This aspect of film is especially important for people who are interested in a more painterly style of filmmaking. In general, the key elements of cinematography are: exposure, shot size, camera angle, camera movement, composition, type of lens, depth of field, and white balance. In the following paragraphs, these fundamentals will be explored. Exposure Basically, exposure refers to the amount of light picked up by the camera. According to the website Elements of Cinema, there are three types of exposure: Ã¢â¬Å"An image is said to represent normal exposure when it is similar to what the eye sees. Overexposure happens when too much light is reflected into the camera, rendering an image that is brighter than normal exposure. Underexposure is the opposite: not much light enters the camera, thus creating a dark imageÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elements of CinematographyÃ¢â¬ ). All of these types of exposure are used to convey certain moods, scenes, and ideas. Shot size In general, shot size means how much of the scene is included in the frame, and deals with what the camera is focusing on. As stated by the website Learn About Film, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to use different shot sizes in your movie. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a way of spelling things out, to make sure that people see exactly the things you want them to see. If you shoot everything in long shot (head to foot) people will probably miss details and expressions which would help them understand the storyÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Shot Size in FilmmakingÃ¢â¬ ). By adjusting the shot size, you can show the setting, introduce people, give close-ups, transition between shots, and demonstrate a change in position. Camera Angle It is important where the camera is placed in connection to its scene and characters, as it shows the mood of what is happening and how the audience views what is happening. According to Elements of Cinema, Ã¢â¬Å"Whereas shot sizes direct who and what we see, camera angles affect how we perceive it. Is a character going to appear dominant and tall? Or short and weak? A strong weapon in the cinematographerÃ¢â¬â¢s arsenal is the ability to position the camera in relation to the subject or sceneryÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elements of CinematographyÃ¢â¬ ). So, the angle of the camera can drastically change the perception of viewers. Camera Movement How the camera moves can not only change the perception of viewers, but it can also suggest the pace and emotion of a scene. According to the Beat, a production blog, Ã¢â¬Å"You can use movement to guide the audience through the scene, slowly revealing certain people or objects in order to create suspense - or simply control the pacing of the sceneÃ¢â¬ (Mccullagh, John). Therefore, a stagnant camera will create monotony and should express the way the plot is progressing. Composition This refers to the way a scene is set and framed to make it artistic and appealing. Filmmakers borrowed ideas from photography and painting for these concepts. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"lead roomÃ¢â¬ refers to when a character is looking left, and because of this, the person should be placed to the right to make the framing comfortable. Another classic principle of composition is the rule of thirds, where, as Elements of Cinematography says, Ã¢â¬Å"one must imagine the frame with two vertical lines and two horizontal lines, as to create three vertical sections of the same dimensions and three vertical sections also of the same sizeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elements of CinematographyÃ¢â¬ ). This is done to make the frame comfortable for the human eye to view. Types of lenses There are various lenses on cameras that filmmakers employ for a multitude of purposes. For instance, zoom lenses are standard lenses that are used when camera tricks and effects are not being set. Prime lenses cannot zoom in or out, but the image quality of these lenses are much higher than the zoom variety. Onto telephoto lenses, they are effective for showing fine detail. The opposite is a wide-angle lens, which sufficiently supplies sweeping panoramas and broad fields of view (Ã¢â¬Å"Elements of CinematographyÃ¢â¬ ). Depth of field It is the area in front of the camera that is sharp in the frame. Adjusting the focus of the camera will change this aspect. The aperture, focal length, and focal distance of the camera creates different effects that convey mood and selective focus (Ã¢â¬Å"Elements of CinematographyÃ¢â¬ ). White balance Essentially, white balance is the process of taking out unrealistic colors that are being cast. Different sources of light can come into play in a shot, and as a filmmaker, you have to decide which type of light source to focus on. For example, you have a room with light from the sun and light from bulbs. Each of these lights will be shown as a different color or Ã¢â¬Å"color temperatureÃ¢â¬ on screen. Therefore, it is important to know which light source to focus in terms of the color that is emitted. These are the extreme basics of cinematography, but a solid starting point in knowing how to work oneÃ¢â¬â¢s head around the subject. Exposure, shot size, camera angle, camera movement, composition, type of lens, depth of field, and white balance all are tools for filmmakers to employ to convey mood, focus, pace, importance of certain elements in the frame, and more. Ã¢â¬Å"Elements of Cinematography.Ã¢â¬ Elements of Cinematography | Shot Sizes, Camera Angles, Exposure, and More, www.elementsofcinema.com/cinematography/elements_of_cinematography.html. Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Shot Size in Filmmaking.Ã¢â¬ Learn about Film, learnaboutfilm.com/film-language/picture/shotsize/. Mccullagh, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Cinematography Tip: Working with Motivated Camera Movement.Ã¢â¬ The Beat: A Blog by PremiumBeat, Shutterstock Premium Beat, 10 Jan. 2019, www.premiumbeat.com/blog/cinematography-tip-motivated-camera-movement/.
Friday, February 21, 2020
The Humanity And Issues Related To It In Literature - Essay Example The men at the hotel are wondering if they have also played some part in The SwedeÃ¢â¬â¢s death. This paper criticizes two important quotations from the story, which I will connect to how I see humankind, and how I view the world. First, I will go into the detail of the quotation, Ã¢â¬Å"Every sin is a result of collaborationÃ¢â¬ (Crane). Crane has talked about collaboration in the sense that the characters of the story are interacting with each other. They talk to each other, and get into fights, due to which they hurt and kill each other. This is how sin is produced. However, I think that here, collaboration means that the society and the sinner are interacting with each other, where both are opposite to each other and are necessary for each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s survival. If there is a virtue, there is a sin. If it is good, there is bad. If there are thieves, there are priests. If there are angels, there is Satan. So, both the opposite extremes exist, and become recognized for the opposite. So, when there is a collaboration between man and others are around him, there is either virtue or sin that is produced. This is how society will go on until the end of the world. Collaboration may also mean here that sin is produced with mutual agreement between two people, as Crane has shown the men at the hotel talking about how they had all taken part in killing Swede. Although many sins can be committed without the involvement of a second person; yet, here collaboration means sin committed with the help of two or more persons, who have interacted with each other and have planned to commit the sin. We know it because the Easterner explains it by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"We, five of us, have collaborated in the murder of this Swede.